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Medical Research


Invited lectures

Imperial College Masterclass, 2020

Obesity and Gestational Diabetes


St Bede’s Conference Centre, 2019

Diabetes Update, Long term conditions

Postgraduate lecture series, Education Centre, St Helier Hospital, 2019

Metabolic syndrome

Ian Smith Memorial lecture, Sutton & District Medical Society, 2019

Harold Shipman: Retelling the story


Epsom Medical Society, 2018

Harold Shipman: Serial killer and best loved doctor


The Society of Chiropodists & Podiatrists, 2018

Update on diabetes for podiatrists

Primary Care Conference, Birmingham 2018

The Global Diabetes Epidemic

BMJ Masterclass, Manchester 2015

GP General Update-Endocrinology

Royal College of Physicians, 2014

Medical complications of pregnancy- Type 1 diabetes in pregnancy

Diabetes Masterclass, 2014

Diabetes in pregnancy-new thinking


37th Annual Meeting of European Thyroid Association, Leiden, 2013

Personalised approach in the management of well differentiated thyroid cancer:

Ablation with low dose radioiodine


5th International Congress for Fertility & Genetics, Amman, 2013

Thyroid disorders in Pregnancy

Diabetes in Pregnancy


Diabetes Masterclass, 2011

Thyroid disorders in diabetes


The 2nd joint JSED-AACE Congress, 2010



The Medical Society of London, 2009

Masterclass in thyroid cancer


11th European Congress of Endocrinology, Istanbul, 2009

Pregnancy after exposure to radioiodine


The Royal Society, London, 2007

Masterclass in advanced cancer medicine: Thyroid cancer


Royal College of Pathologists, London, 2006

UK Key Advances in Effective management of Thyroid Cancer

Early and late toxicity of radioiodine


Royal Society of Medicine, London, 2006

Medicine for Old Age Psychiatrist

Thyroid disease in the elderly


Royal College of Pathologists, London, 2004

UK Key Advances in Clinical Practice –thyroid disease

Medullary thyroid carcinoma


Royal Pharmaceutical Society, London, 2003

New advances in Diabetes


Institute of Cancer Research, London, 2003

Endocrine aspects of thyroid cancer


Faculty of Medicine, Addis Ababa University, 2003

Thyroid disease in developing countries


1. Hyer SL, Knell AJ.

Cirrhosis and haemolysis complicating methyldopa treatment.

Brit Med J 1977 1:879.


2. Nigram BK, Hyer SL, Taylor EJ, Guha T.

Intrathoracic chemodectoma with noradrenaline secretion.

Thorax 1981 36:66-68.


3. Hyer SL, Taylor D, Barham J, Wilson J, Shaw J, Vince FP.

The effects of propranolol and metoprolol on skin blood flow in diabetic patients.

Brit J Clin Pharmac 1987 23:769-771.


4. Hyer SL, Sharp PS, Brooks RA, Burrin JM, Kohner EM.

Serum IGF-1 concentration in diabetic retinopathy.

Diabetic Medicine 1988 5:356-360.


5. Hyer SL, Sharp PS, Brooks RA, Burrin JM, Kohner EM

Progression of diabetic retinopathy and changes in serum IGF-1 during CSII.

Hormone & Metabolic Res 1989 21:18-22.


6. Hyer SL, Sharp PS, Brooks RA, Burrin JM, Kohner EM

Failure to suppress GH secretion after 2 weeks trteatment with atropine or propanthelene in diabetics with proliferative retinopathy.

Acta Endocrinologica 1988 119:61-68.


7. Hyer SL, Sharp PS, Brooks RA, Burrin JM, Kohner EM

A 2 year follow-up study of serum IGF-1 in diabetics with retinopathy.

Metabolism 1989 38:586-9.


8. Hyer SL, Froyd HE, Kohner EM.

The effect of the NovoPen on glycaemic control and patient independence in diabetics with visual impairment.

Practical Diabetes 1988 5:197-99.


9. Hyer SL, Sharp PS, Brooks RA, Burrin JM, Kohner EM

Continuous subcutaneous octreotide infusion markedly suppresses IGF-1 levels whilst only partially suppressing GH secretion in diabetics with retinopathy.

Acta Endocrinologica 1989 120:187-194.


10. Hyer SL, Kohner EM, Davies G, Mackay EM, Vandenburg MJ.

Effect of two beta antagonists (dilevalol and propranolol) on retinal blood flow; a double blind placebo controlled study.

Journal of Hypertension 1989 7:S268-9.

11. Hyer SL, Kohner EM

Aspects of GH control in diabetes.

Australian & New Zealand J Ophthalmol 1990 18:33-39.


12. Davies G, Hyer SL, Kohner EM.

Macular blood flow response to acute reduction of plasma glucose in diabetic patients by the blue light entoptic technique.

Ophthalmology 1990 97:160-164.


13. Hyer SL, Gilbey S, Kohner EM, Bloom SR.

The growth hormone response to galanin in diabetics with retinopathy.

Exp Clin Endocrinol 1991 10:11-15.


14. Hyer SL, Richardson JH, Brown M, Lever AML, Nussey SS.

Progressive flaccid myelopathy associated with HTLV-1

Lancet 1991 338:994.


15. Hyer SL, Rodin DA, Tobias JH, Leiper A, Nussey SS.

Growth hormone deficiency during puberty reduces adult bone mineral density

Arch Dis Child 1992 67:1472-74.


16. Hyer SL, Soo SC, Nussey SS.

Spontaneous haemorrhage into a pituitary tumour after streptokinase therapy.

Postgrad Med J 1993 69:244.


17. Nussey SS, Hyer SL, Brada M, Leiper AD.

Bone mineralisation after treatment of growth hormone deficiency in survivors of childhood malignancy.

Acta Paediatr Suppl 1994 399:9-14.


18. Hyer SL, Thomas DM, Polak JM, Nussey SS.

Malignant insulinoma in pregnancy presenting as hypothermia.

J Obs Gynaecol 1995 15:34-36.


19. Zomas A, Marsh J, Harrison N, Hyer SL

Rapid progression of fibrosing alveolitis and thyrotoxicosis after antithymocyte globulin therapy for aplastic anaemia.

Annals of Haematol 1995 71:49-51.


20. Hyer SL

Improving the effectiveness of R&D in Trust Hospitals

British Journal of Health Care Management 1997 3:600-1.


21. Soper CPR, Barron JL, Hyer SL

Long term glycaemic control directly correlates with glomerular filtration rate in early IDDM before the onset of microalbuminuria.

Diabetes Medicine 1998 15:1010-1014


22. Hyer S, Wilcox H.

An ethical code for everybody in health care: A universal code should start with basic human rights.

British Medical Journal 1998 316:1459-60


23. Hyer SL, Duckworth K, Jones C.

Managing erectile disorders in diabetes: the one stop andrology clinic

Practical Diabetes International 1998 15: 225-226


24. Vini L, Hyer SL, Pratt B, Harmer C.

Good prognosis in thyroid cancer found incidentally at surgery for thyrotoxicosis

Postgraduate Med J 1999 75: 169-170


25. Nutting C, Hyer SL, Vini L, Harmer C

Failure of TSH rise prior to radioiodine therapy for thyroid cancer; implications for treatment

Clinical Oncology 1999 11:269-271


26. Vini L, Hyer SL, Pratt B, Harmer C.

Management of differentiated thyroid cancer diagnosed during pregnancy

European Journal of Endocrinology 1999 140:404-406[1]


27. Hyer SL, Vini L, Pratt B, Harmer C.

Medullary thyroid cancer: multivariate analysis of prognostic factors influencing survival[2]

European Journal of Surgical Oncology 2000 26:686-690


28. Plank M and Hyer SL

Clinical implications of foot pressures during normal gait

The Diabetic Foot 2000 3 (3) 100-104

29. Andrews, P.A., Hyer, S.L. and Wilcox, H. 

Role of LRECs in review of MREC decisions.

British Medical Journal 2000. 320:7248


30. L Vini, S Hyer, A Al-Saadi, B Pratt, Harmer C

Prognosis for fertility and ovarian function after treatment with

radioiodine for thyroid cancer

Postgraduate Medical Journal 2002; 78 92-93


31. Hyer SL. Vini L, O’Connell M, Pratt B., Harmer C.

Testicular dose and fertility in men following I-131 therapy for thyroid cancer

Clinical Endocrinology 2002 56, 755-758[3]


 32. Hyer SL

Type 2 diabetes is really a vascular disease

GP Update 2002 292-8


33. Vini L, Hyer SL, Marshall S, A’Hern R, Harmer C

Long-term results in elderly patients with differentiated thyroid cancer

Cancer 2003 97 (11) 2736 - 2742


34. Taylor H, Hyer S, Vini L, Pratt B, Cook G, Harmer C.

Diagnostic 131I whole body scanning after thyroidectomy and ablation for differentiated thyroid cancer.

European Journal of Endocrinology 2004 150 (5) 649-653


35. Hyer SL, Newbold K, Harmer C.

Familial medullary thyroid cancer: clinical aspects and prognosis.

European J. Surg. Oncol 2005 31 415-419.


36. Hyer SL, Shehata H.

Gestational Diabetes.

Current Obstetrics & Gynaecology 2005 15 (6) 368-374.


37. Haq M, Hyer S, Flux G, Cook G, Harmer C

Differentiated thyroid cancer presenting with thyrotoxicosis from functioning metastases

Brit J Radiology 2007 80 (950) e38-43 


38. Hyer SL, Kong A, Pratt B, and Harmer CL

Salivary gland toxicity following 131I therapy for thyroid cancer

Clinical Oncology 2007 19 (1) 83-86


39. Patel S, Hyer SL, Barron J.

Glomerular Filtration Rate Is a Major Determinant of the Relationship between 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Parathyroid Hormone

Calcified Tissue International 2007 80:221-226


40. Hyer SL, McAleese J, Newbold K, Harmer CL

Neuroendocrine carcinoma arising in soft tissue: Three case reports and literature review

World Journal Surgical Oncology 2007 5:77-79


41. Hyer SL, Plank M, Rodin DA, Patel S.

Falls, Postural stability and diabetic neuropathy: a study of post-menopausal women with type 2 diabetes mellitus using a footmat system

Diabetic Foot 2007 10:210-214


42. Kapoor N, Sankaran S, Hyer S, Shehata H.

Diabetes in pregnancy: a review of current evidence

Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology 2007 19:586-590.


43. Zachariah S, Byrne P, Hyer SL

Adult-onset Diabetes Insipidus due to trans-sphenoidal encephalocele and dysgenesis of corpus callosum

British Journal of Hospital Medicine 2008 69 4: 227


44. Patel S, Hyer S, Tweed K, Kerry S, Allan K, Rodin A, Barron J.

Risk factors for fractures and falls in older women with type 2 diabetes mellitus

Calcified Tissue International 2008 82: 87-91


45. Patel S, Mirzazadeh M, Hyer S, Barron J

PTH response to vitamin D supplementation

JCEM Online, 22 Jun 2008


46.Hyer SL, Prasad D, Newbold K, Haq M, Thway K, Wechalekar K, Harmer CL

Thyroid cancer causing obstruction of the great veins in the neck:  5 case reports and literature review

World Journal Surgical Oncology 2008 6:36-46


47. Balani J, Hyer SL, Rodin DA, Shehata H[4].

Pregnancy outcomes in women with gestational diabetes treated with metformin or insulin: a case–control study

Diab Med 2009 26 (8) 798-802.[5] 


48. Hyer SL, Balani J, Johnson A, Shehata H.

Metformin treatment for gestational diabetes.

The British Journal of Diabetes & Vascular Disease 2009 9:220-225


49. Hyer SL, Newbold K, Harmer CL

Early and late toxicity of radioiodine: detection and management.

Endocrine Practice 2010 16 (6)1064-1070.


 50. Patel S, Barron JL, Mirzazedeh M, Gallagher H, Hyer S, Cantor T, Fraser WD.

Changes in bone mineral parameters, vitamin D metabolites and PTH measurements with varying CKD stages
Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism 2011 29:71-79


51. Hyer SL, Pratt B, Newbold K, Harmer CL

Outcome of pregnancy after exposure to radioiodine in utero

Endocrine Practice 2011 17:281-6


52. Hyer SL.

Randomised controlled trial: Metformin is not significantly different from insulin for preventing fetal macrosomia in women with gestational diabetes

Evid Based Med 2011; ebmed-2011 -100121   


53. Kenchaiah M, Hyer SL

Diffuse large B-cell non Hodgkin's lymphoma in a 65-year-old woman presenting with hypopituitarism and recovering after chemotherapy: a case report

Journal of Medical Case Reports 2011, 5:498.


54. Balani J, Hyer SL, Johnson A, Shehata H 

Pregnancy outcomes after metformin treatment for gestational diabetes: A case-control study

Obstet Med 2012 5:78-82


55. Kenchaiah M, Hyer SL

Cushing’s syndrome due to ectopic ACTH from a bronchial carcinoid:

Case Reports in Endocrinology 2012 

Article ID 215038, 4 pages doi:10.1155/2012/215038


56.Latif L, Hyer SL, Balani J, Johnson A, Shehata H.

Metformin effects on treatment satisfaction and quality of life in gestational diabetes

British Journal of Diabetes & Vascular Disease 2013 13 (4) 178-182


57.Balani J, Hyer S, Johnson A, Shehata H.

The importance of visceral fat mass in obese pregnant women and relation with pregnancy outcomes

Obstetric Medicine 2014 (7) 22-25


58. Syngelaki A, Nicolaides K, Balani J, Hyer S, Akolekar R, Kotecha R, Pastides A,   Shehata H. 

Metformin versus Placebo in Obese Pregnant women without Diabetes Mellitus

New England Journal of Medicine 2016 374:434-443[6]

59. Hyer SL, Wilcox H.

Charlie Gard: an ethicist in the courtroom. Rapid Response.

British Medical Journal 2017; 358; j3451 Pub 3.8.17

60. Balani J, Hyer S, Syngelaki A, Akolekar R, Nicolaides KH, Johnson A, Shehata H.

Association between insulin resistance and preeclampsia in obese non-diabetic women receiving metformin 

Obstetric Medicine 2017 10 (4): 170-173.


61. Balani J, Hyer SL, Shehata H, Mohareb F.

Visceral fat mass as a novel risk factor for predicting gestational diabetes in obese pregnant women.

Obstetric Medicine 2018 p. 1–5.

Available from:


62. Hyer SL, Pratt B, Gray M, Chittenden S, Du Y, Harmer CL, Flux G.

Dosimetry-based treatment for Graves’ disease

Nuclear Medicine Communications 2018 39 (6) 486-492.


63. Tran A, Hyer SL.

The challenge of thyroid hormone replacement in primary care

J Pharmacol Clin Res  2018 5 (4) JPCR.MS.ID. 555669.


64. Hyer SL, Balani J, Shehata H.

Metformin in pregnancy: Mechanisms and clinical applications.

International Journal  Molecular  Sciences  2018 19 (7) 1954


65. Hyer SL

Caring for women with thyroid disorders

British Journal of Midwifery 2018 26 (7) 434- 439 


66. Tran A, Hyer SL, Bathgate G, Okosieme O.

Thyroid hormone replacement in primary care and the Goldilocks principle- too much, too little or just right? 

Prescriber  Dec 2018 30-33


67. Tran  A, Hyer  S, Rafi  I,  Okosieme O.

Thyroid hormone replacement in the preconception period and pregnancy: addressing the challenges in  primary care

British Journal General Practice  2019 69 (683) 282-3. 

68. Balani J, Hyer S, Rodin DA.

Novel subgroups of adult‐onset diabetes in a UK community setting

Practical Diabetes 2020 37: 32-33 

69. Hyer SL, Chang J, Chuah LL, Manzoor R, Philip N

The potential for Big Data in Type 2 diabetes

Archives of Community Medicine and Public Health 

Arch Community Med Public Health 2019 5(1): 039-042.

70. Nandoshvili E, Hyer SL

Thyroid disorders presenting in the Acute Medical Unit

Journal of Pharmacology & Clinical Research 2019 7 (1) 555702

71. Nandoshvili E, Hyer SL, Johri N

Partial nephrogenic diabetes insipidus associated with lithium therapy

British Medical Journal Case Reports 2019 12(9) e231093

Available at:

72. Salota R, Lapsley M, Nabi E, Packer S, Hyer S, Dockrell M.

Time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay for urine retinol binding protein is more sensitive than polyclonal and monoclonal assays.

Annals of Clinical Biochemistry 2021 58 (5) 505-519


73. Sarre G, Hyer S, Chauhan-Whittingham P, Johnson A.

Patients’ experience of antenatal diabetic care during the current Covid-19 pandemic: an exploratory study

Practical Diabetes 2021 38 (6) 23-30.


74. Taprogge J, Gape PM, Carnegie-Peake L, Murray I, Gear JI, Leek F, Hyer SL, Flux G.

A systematic review and meta-analysis of the relationship between the radiation absorbed dose delivered to the thyroid and response in patients treated with radioiodine for Graves’ disease

Thyroid 2021 31 (12) 1829-1838.

[1] Cited in 2006 European Thyroid Association Guidelines

[2] Cited in 2002 Year Book of Endocrinology, ed, Mazzaferri EL, Mosby, US

[3] Commentary by Mazzaferri EL, Clin Endocrinol 2002, 57, 313-4

[4] Favourably reviewed by  Ardilouze J-L,  Mahdavian M,  Baillargeon, J-P. J-P Brick by Brick: Metformin for Gestational Diabetes Mellitus? Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab. 2010;5(3):353-357

[5] Referenced in UptoDate

[6] Referenced in UptoDate

Books and chapters in books


1. Kohner EM, Porta M, Hyer SL

The pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy and cataract.

In: Textbook of Diabetes, eds, Pickup JC, Williams G, 1991 Vol 2 Chap 57; pp564-574. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford.

Medical Book of the Year: 1997


2. Hyer SL, Kohner EM.

Pathophysiology of diabetic retinopathy: Role of growth hormone and growth factors in the development of proliferative diabetic retinopathy.

In: Encyclopedie Medico-Chirurgicale 1990 10:21240 pp 1-4. Editions Techniques SA Paris.


3. Hyer SL, Kohner EM.

Diabetes in Pictures: Diabetic Retinopathy.

1990; pp1-25 Hoechst, Frankfurt.


4. Lamperelli H, Rodin DA, Hyer SL

Management of diabetes in the surgical patient

In: Association of Surgeons in Training Yearbook 1999-2000 Chapter 10: pp71-75

Royal College of Surgeons, London


5. Hyer SL, Harmer CL

Recent Advances in the Clinical Management of Thyroid Cancer

In: Trends in Thyroid Cancer Research

(Horizons in Cancer Research, Volume 37)

Ed: Carl A. Milton

Nova Science Publishers, New York, 2006


6. Hyer SL, Harmer CL

Radioiodine in Benign Thyroid Disease

In: Radiotherapy in practice: Radioisotope therapy

Ed: Peter Hoskin

Oxford University Press, 2007


7. Balani J, Hyer S, Wagner M, Shehata H

Obesity, polycystic ovaries and impaired reproductive outcome

In: Obesity- a ticking time bomb for reproductive health, Chapter 22                    

Ed: Tahir A Mahmood, Sabaratnam Arulkumaran

Elsevier Science, 2012


8. Hyer SL

Thyroid nodules and cancer

In: Oxford Desk Reference Endocrinology


9. Hyer SL

The role of the human gut biome in obesity.

In: Practical Guide to Obesity Medicine: pp71-76

Ed: Jolanta Weaver

Elsevier Science, 2017


91 published abstracts from scientific meetings

Web of Knowledge [2001-2020]

  • Sum of times cited: 24, 333   Average citations per item: 187 

  • H-index: 28    Number of publications: 130



Medical Advisor for: British Thyroid Foundation and NICE Committee on Thyroid Cancer: Assessment and Management

Expert Advisor for: GP Update (Ask the Experts)

Reviewer for: Current Medical Research & Opinion, Postgraduate Medical Journal, Clinical Oncology, World Journal of Surgical Oncology, Diabetic Medicine, Drug & Therapeutic Bulletin, Acta Diabetologia, Nuclear Medicine Communications

Invited Lectures
Books & Chapters
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